Illustrations for the STRs: https://www.google.com/search >

search “Short Tandem Repeats” > choose "images for Short Tandem Repeats"


STR names ‘DYSddd’: all STRs have a unique identification number (e.g. 393, 442),

with DYS, DYZ, or DYF prefixes: ‘D’ stands for DNA, ‘Y’ stands for Y chromosome,

and S, Z, or F shows the complexity of the repeat segment: ‘S’ is a unique segment,

‘Z’ has repetitive segments at one site, ‘F’ has multiple copies on the Y chromosome.




Y-STR markers (mutation rates): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Y-STR_markers


Genetic Distance (GD) (hybrid mutation counts, or infinite allele model)

a. Hybrid Mutation Model: stepwise mutation model, assumes each mutation changes

    the allele value by exactly one, so a difference of two means that two mutations

    occurred, and a difference of three means that three mutations occurred.

b. Infinite Allele Mutation Model: assumes that the entire difference between allele

    values, no matter how large, is the result of one mutation.



The Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype (WAMH) (standard set of 12 STR markers):



The Irish Modal Haplotype (IMH) and the (North West) NW Irish project



The Y Chromosome Consortium: http://isogg.org/wiki/Y_Chromosome_Consortium


“Let's All Start Using Terminal SNP Labels Instead of Y Haplogroup Subclade Names,

Okay?", by CeCe Moore, September 20, 2012, on her blog, Your Genetic Genealogist:



(North West) NW Irish Y-DNA haplogroup project: http://isogg.org/wiki/NW_Irish

and Haplogroup R1b (> R1b-M222): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1b


SNP names include a ‘discovery’ prefix and sequential number; some of the codes are

*A* and *L* by Thomas Krahn, MSc (Dipl.-Ing.), YSEQ.net, Berlin, Germany [30]

*DF* by anonymous researcher(s) using publicly available full-genome-sequence data

*FGC* by Full Genomes Corporation, Rockville, Maryland [28]

 M  by Peter Underhill, Ph.D. of Stanford University, Palo Alto, California

  P  by Michael Hammer, Ph.D. of University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona

*S* by James F. Wilson, D.Phil. at Edinburgh University, Scotland

*Y* by the Y Full Team using data from next-generation sequencing samples [29]


SNP data: The Big Tree: Mutations: http://www.ytree.net/SNPIndex.php

e.g. Names / POSITION-ANC-DER / Region / STR Blocks

      FGC19846      18114115-T-G                         FGC19846

. . . FGC19849       22437424-C-T     DYZ19       FGC19846


SNP data: SNPedia Wiki for Personal Genomics: http://snpedia.com/index.php/SNPedia


McAninch Y-DNA Status Report 2016: Source Notes and References: Notes [33] to [44]

McAninch Family History NL v.XXIV n.1 / April 2016 / Copyright Frank McAninch / pg.2016-17

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