shows the FTDNA Y-DNA test results, 111 Marker STRs and BigY SNPs .The BigY test

is Family Tree DNA’s NGS (next generation sequencing) test [18], with the SNPs reported

“M222 > S658 > S661 > S660 > DF85 > S673 > S668 > DF97 > FGC19844/46-48/56”, along

with the (terminal SNP) reported Haplogroup “R-FGC19846” (a quick search of “R-FGC19846”

will show a few other men in the R1b-M222 Project with the same haplogroup (terminal SNP)).

Please consider joining the R1b-M222 Y-DNA Project (with an M222 result, membership is free).

“Y Tree: The Big Tree” is another online resource, with the ‘McAninch’ SNPs shown on the

‘DF49 / S474’ tree, sixth column from the left (after Ashley, Duncan, and McConnaughhay) [25].

Additional ‘McAninch’ ytree information is available through the ‘People (R-P312)’ pages [26].

The National Geographic Society (NGS) (not the same NGS as ‘Next Generation Sequencing’)

sponsors their Genographic Project, using advanced DNA analysis and working with indigenous

communities to help answer fundamental questions about where humans originated and how we

came to populate the Earth [Note 27], with their (ca.2006) ‘Migration Routes’ map online [27].

Many other companies are actively involved with Y-DNA testing and/or analysis services:

FGC, Full Genomes Corporation (‘Y Elite’ is their Next Generation Sequencing product) [28],

Y Full: R1b tree (v.4.03), R-M269, R-M222, R-DF85, R-DF97 trees (with age estimates) [29],

YSEQ: Thomas Krahn, Y-DNA ‘Next Generation Sequencing’ and analysis [30], and

BISDNA: BritainsDNA / IrelandsDNA / ScotlandsDNA, ‘Chromo2’ is their NGS test [31].

Note that ‘’ and ‘23andMe’ sell autosomal ‘(cousin’) tests, with no Y-DNA tests.

And, also note that the FBI’s CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) is an autosomal database

(CODIS is the FBI's autosomal STR DNA database for profiles of criminal offenders).

Y-DNA Haplotypes, Markers, STRs, Genetic Distance (GD), WAMH and IMH

“Concepts – Y DNA Matching and Connecting with your Paternal Ancestor” is an excellent

introduction to this subject on the ‘DNA Explained’ blog, by Roberta Estes (April 2016) [32].

The Haplotype is the collection of STR values in the (37, 67, 111) markers that have been tested.

STRs are ‘short tandem repeat’s, with a unit of two to thirteen alleles repeated many times in a

row on the chromosome, and the Y-DNA test measures the exact number of repeating units [33].

Y-DNA STRs have ‘DYSddd’ names (e.g. DYS393, DYS442, DYS438 . . . DYS435) [34],

and a long list of Y-STR markers (DYS markers) (and mutation rates) can be found online [35].

Genetic Distance (GD) is the measure of differences in the various STR marker counts, with two

methods commonly used today: stepwise mutation counts, and the infinite allele model [36].


McAninch Y-DNA Status Report 2016: 4 of 8: Haplotypes, Markers, STRs, GD, WAMH, IMH

McAninch Family History NL v.XXIV n.1 / April 2016 / Copyright Frank McAninch / pg.2016-05

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